deeplearn.js is an open source WebGL-accelerated JavaScript library for machine intelligence. deeplearn.js brings highly performant machine learning building blocks to your fingertips, allowing you to train neural networks in a browser or run pre-trained models in inference mode. It provides an API for constructing differentiable data flow graphs, as well as a set of mathematical functions that can be used directly.

You can find the code that supplements this tutorial here.

Run it yourself with:

./scripts/watch-demo demos/intro

And visit http://localhost:8080/demos/intro/.

Or just view the demo we have hosted here.

For the purposes of the documentation, we will use TypeScript code examples. For vanilla JavaScript, you may need to remove the occasional TypeScript type annotation or definition.

Core concepts


The central unit of data in deeplearn.js is the NDArray. An NDArray consists of a set of floating point values shaped into an array of an arbitrary number of dimensions. NDArrays have a shape attribute to define their shape. The library provides sugar subclasses for low-rank NDArrays: Scalar, Array1D, Array2D, Array3D and Array4D.

Example usage with a 2x3 matrix:

const shape = [2, 3];  // 2 rows, 3 columns
const a =, [1.0, 2.0, 3.0, 10.0, 20.0, 30.0]);

NDArrays can store data either on the GPU as a WebGLTexture, where each pixel stores a floating point value, or on the CPU as a vanilla JavaScript TypedArray. Most of the time, the user should not think about the storage, as it is an implementation detail.

If NDArray data is stored on the CPU, the first time a GPU mathematical operation is called the data will be uploaded to a texture automatically. If you call NDArray.getValuesAsync() on a GPU-resident NDArray, the library will download the texture to the CPU and delete the texture.


The library provides a NDArrayMath base class which defines a set of mathematical functions that operate on NDArrays.


When using the NDArrayMathGPU implementation, these mathematical operations enqueue shader programs to be executed on the GPU. Unlike in NDArrayMathCPU, these operations are not blocking, but the user can synchronize the cpu with the gpu by calling getValuesAsync() on the NDArray, as we describe in detail below.

These shaders read and write from WebGLTextures which are owned by NDArrays. When chaining mathematical operations, textures can stay in GPU memory (not downloaded to the CPU between operations), which is critical for performance.

Example of taking the mean squared difference between two matrices:

const math = new NDArrayMathGPU();

const a =[2, 2], [1.0, 2.0, 3.0, 4.0]);
const b =[2, 2], [0.0, 2.0, 4.0, 6.0]);

// Non-blocking math calls.
const diff = math.sub(a, b);
const squaredDiff = math.elementWiseMul(diff, diff);
const sum = math.sum(squaredDiff);
const size =;
const average = math.divide(sum, size);

console.log('mean squared difference: ' + average.get());

TIP: Avoid calling get() or getValuesAsync() between mathematical GPU operations unless you are debugging. This forces a texture download, and subsequent NDArrayMathGPU calls will have to re-upload the data to a new texture.


When using CPU implementations, these mathematical operations are blocking and get executed immediately on the underlying TypedArrays with vanilla JavaScript.


Differentiable data flow graphs in deeplearn.js use a delayed execution model, just like in TensorFlow. Users construct a graph and then train or infer on them by providing input NDArrays through FeedEntrys.

NOTE: NDArrayMath and NDArrays are sufficient for inference mode. You only need a graph if you want to train.

Graphs and Tensors

The Graph object is the core class for constructing data flow graphs. Graph objects don’t actually hold NDArray data, only connectivity between operations.

The Graph class has differentiable operations as top level member functions. When you call a graph method to add an operation, you get back a Tensor object which only holds connectivity and shape information.

An example graph that multiplies an input by a variable:

const g = new Graph();

// Placeholders are input containers. This is the container for where we will
// feed an input NDArray when we execute the graph.
const inputShape = [3];
const inputTensor = g.placeholder('input', inputShape);

const labelShape = [1];
const labelTensor = g.placeholder('label', labelShape);

// Variables are containers that hold a value that can be updated from
// training.
// Here we initialize the multiplier variable randomly.
const multiplier = g.variable('multiplier', Array2D.randNormal([1, 3]));

// Top level graph methods take Tensors and return Tensors.
const outputTensor = g.matmul(multiplier, inputTensor);
const costTensor = g.meanSquaredCost(outputTensor, labelTensor);

// Tensors, like NDArrays, have a shape attribute.

Session and FeedEntry

Session objects are what drive the execution of Graphs. FeedEntry (similar to TensorFlow feed_dict) are what provide data for the run, feeding a value to a Tensor from a given NDArray.

A quick note on batching: deeplearn.js hasn’t yet implemented batching as an outer dimension for operations. This means every top level graph op, as well as math function, operate on single examples. However, batching is important so that weight updates operate on the average of gradients over a batch. deeplearn.js simulates batching by using an InputProvider in train FeedEntrys to provide inputs, rather than NDArrays directly. The InputProvider will get called for each item in a batch. We provide a InMemoryShuffledInputProviderBuilder for shuffling a set of inputs and keeping them in sync.

Training with the Graph object from above:

const learningRate = .00001;
const batchSize = 3;
const math = new NDArrayMathGPU();

const session = new Session(g, math);
const optimizer = new SGDOptimizer(learningRate);

const inputs: Array1D[] = [[1.0, 2.0, 3.0]),[10.0, 20.0, 30.0]),[100.0, 200.0, 300.0])

const labels: Array1D[] = [[4.0]),[40.0]),[400.0])

// Shuffles inputs and labels and keeps them mutually in sync.
const shuffledInputProviderBuilder =
  new InCPUMemoryShuffledInputProviderBuilder([inputs, labels]);
const [inputProvider, labelProvider] =

// Maps tensors to InputProviders.
const feedEntries: FeedEntry[] = [
  {tensor: inputTensor, data: inputProvider},
  {tensor: labelTensor, data: labelProvider}

const NUM_BATCHES = 10;
for (let i = 0; i < NUM_BATCHES; i++) {
  // Wrap session.train in a scope so the cost gets cleaned up automatically.
  math.scope(() => {
    // Train takes a cost tensor to minimize. Trains one batch. Returns the
    // average cost as a Scalar.
    const cost = session.train(
        costTensor, feedEntries, batchSize, optimizer, CostReduction.MEAN);

    console.log('last average cost (' + i + '): ' + cost.get());

After training, we can infer through the graph:

// Wrap session.eval in a scope so the intermediate values get cleaned up
// automatically.
math.scope((keep, track) => {
  const testInput = track([0.1, 0.2, 0.3]));

  // session.eval can take NDArrays as input data.
  const testFeedEntries: FeedEntry[] = [
    {tensor: inputTensor, data: testInput}

  const testOutput = session.eval(outputTensor, testFeedEntries);

  console.log('---inference output---');
  console.log('shape: ' + testOutput.shape);
  console.log('value: ' + testOutput.get(0));

// Cleanup training data.
inputs.forEach(input => input.dispose());
labels.forEach(label => label.dispose());

Want to learn more? Read these tutorials.